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6. Reading list

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Andersen, P. (2007). What is Web 2.0?: ideas, technologies and implications for education: JISC. This TechWatch report was commissioned to investigate the substance behind the hyperbole surrounding ‘Web 2.0’ and to report on the implications this may have for the UK Higher and Further Education sector, with a special focus on collection and preservation activities within libraries. The report argues that by separating out the discussion of Web technologies (ongoing Web development overseen by the W3C), from the more recent applications and services (social software), and attempts to understand the manifestations and adoption of these services (the ‘big ideas’), decision makers will find it easier to understand and act on the strategic implications of ‘Web 2.0’. Indeed, analysing the composition and interplay of these strands provides a useful framework for understanding its significance.

BECTA. (2008). Harnessing Technology: Next Generation Learning 2008-14: BECTA. The system-wide framework outlined here will provide the basis for specific sector implementation plans. In addition to building this broad capability, these will be informed by five important cross-sector themes. • Promoting a technology-related learner entitlement, and working to close the gap for disadvantaged learners to enable all learners to access and use technology effectively, safely and purposefully in support of their learning. • Putting in place universal access to powerful learning tools, content and support for family and informal learning. • Helping to secure better teaching by fully exploiting the benefits of technology to provide professional tools and support for teaching. • Mobilising leadership at all levels of the system through nationally recognised leadership networks supporting innovation and knowledge transfer. • Developing a fit-for-purpose system-wide national digital infrastructure that supports personal ownership and environmental sustainability.

BECTA. (2008). Harnessing Technology: Discontinuities with current practice which effect the use of technology for learning. This, the second report, addresses factors which, while less continuous than trends, are discontinuities with current practice. Such disturbances may disrupt established trends or create new trends. The report considers the broad implications of both forms of discontinuity for the desired system outcomes

Borgman. (2008). Fostering Learning in the Networked World: The Cyberlearning Opportunity and Challenge. . (Taken from exec summary) Cyberlearning has tremendous potential right now because we have powerful new technologies, increased understanding of learning and instruction, and widespread demand for solutions to educational problems. In the last decade, the design of technologies and our understanding of how people learn have evolved together, while new approaches to research and design make the development and testing of technologies more responsive to real-world requirements and learning environments. NSF has played a key role in these advances, funding interdisciplinary programs specifically to support research and activities in the area of cyberlearning. NSF can continue to lead this revolution by leveraging its investments in the productive intersections between technology and the learning sciences. Several factors have come together to open these opportunities for cyberlearning. Web technologies enable people to share, access, publish—and learn from—online content and software, across the globe. Content is no longer limited to the books, filmstrips, and videos associated with classroom instruction; networked content today provides a rich immersive learning environment incorporating accessible data using colorful visualizations, animated graphics, and interactive applications. Alongside these technology improvements, “open educational resources” offer learning content and software tools that support search, organization, interaction, and distribution of materials.

Caruso, J., & Salaway, G. (2008). The ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology, 2008—Roadmap. This ECAR roadmap synthesizes the important issues and recommended actions drawn from The ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology, 2008, by Gail Salaway and Judith Borreson Caruso, with Mark R. Nelson. This 2008 ECAR research study is a longitudinal extension of the 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007 ECAR studies of students and information technology. The study is based on quantitative data from a spring 2008 survey of 27,317 freshmen and seniors at 90 four-year institutions and eight two-year institutions; student focus groups that included input from 75 students at four institutions; and analysis of qualitative data from 5,877 written responses to open-ended questions. In addition to studying student ownership, experience, behaviors, preferences, and skills with respect to information technologies, the 2008 study also includes a special focus on student participation in social networking sites.

Chowcat, I., Phillips, B., Popham, J., & Jones, I. (2008). Harnessing Technology: Preliminary identification of trends affecting the use of technology for learning: BECTA. From our preliminary analysis of the trends, six cross-cutting themes emerge; these are the: wide-ranging implications for curriculum and pedagogy of Web 2.0 technologies, and the behaviours of young people who are incorporating them into their lives longer-term impact on curriculum and pedagogy of capital investment programmes changing demands for workplace skills extent to which both social and technological drivers will lead to a fundamental transformation of the character of education and how it is organised implications for the pedagogical role and professional development of teachers and other enablers of learning implications for education of the arrival of pervasive computing.

Cliff, D., O‘Malley, C., & Taylor, J. (2008). Future Issues in Socio-Technical Change for UK Education. Our brief in writing this document is best summarized by this excerpt from the original invitation issued to us by the Beyond Current Horizons team: …focus specifically upon attempting to explore the various ways in which cutting edge technological developments in computing, bioscience, and mathematics, might interact with social structures and practices over the next 15-50 years and to understand how subsequent changes in social practices might have implications for education. … from a scientific perspective, … attempt to map out key trends likely to emerge in the field of automation/artificial intelligence, ubiquitous computing, and brain/world interfaces. And so the rest of this paper aims to meet that specification. We concentrate here on computing, with particular reference to computerized automation, artificial intelligence, ubiquitous computing, and advanced interface issues.

Coffield, F. (2006). Future Research Priorities Horizon Scanning Papers produced by members of the DfES Research Advisory Panels: School of Education University of Exeter Professor John Gray Faculty of Education, University of Cambridge. In 2001 the Department established three external Advisory Panels composed of external experts and relevant Departmental Analysts. The panels are: • Early Years and Schools: research that will help the Department to ensure that children get a good start in education so that they have a solid foundation for future learning; • 14-19 Issues: research that will help the Department to ensure that young people develop and are equipped with the skills and personal qualities needed for learning and work; and • Higher Education and Life Long Learning: research that will help the Department to enable adults to learn and improve their skills and enrich their lives. In Autumn 2003 and Spring 2004, members of the Advisory Panels were commissioned to write ‘horizon scanning papers’. The authors were asked to look at issues and priorities in 5-10 years time, based on current trends, research and influencing factors such as demography. The issues raised in the papers, together with our own assessment of information needs, helped to identify a number of emerging areas for research in the 2004-05 work programme. They do not, however, reflect priorities in 2005-06 as the policy context and research programme have moved on, and the issues raised are not indicative of the Department’s current programme.

Futurelab. (2007). 2020 and beyond. Future scenarios for education in the age of new technologies, Futurelab. At the present time the UK education system is witnessing a rash of crystal ball gazing. The Education 2020 report provides a vision for personalised learning for the next 13 years; the Building Schools for the Future programme is engendering debates about the institutions and structures of schooling for the next 50 years; and the 21st century curriculum reviews at QCA are generating discussions about the purpose and function of education for the next 100 years. These discussions are not restricted to the UK; since the late 1990s nation states around the world, and international organisations such as the OECD and UN, have been exploring the future of education in the 21st century. This publication is intended to challenge and disturb some of the assumptions underlying these discussions by reviewing current predictions about the development in capacities of digital technologies between now and 2020.

Geser, G. (2007). Open educational practices and resources: OLCOS Roadmap 2012: Open eLearning Content Observatory Services. In the last few years, Open Educational Resources (OER) have gained much attention; for example, due to the extensive media coverage on the Open Courseware initiative of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the work of ever more organisations that promote the use of Creative Commons licenses, and the success of Open Source software-based systems such as Moodle in the educational sector. However, in order to further benefit from Open Educational Resources it is necessary to gain a much clearer understanding of the role OER can play in changing educational practices. Therefore, the Open e-Learning Content Observatory Services (OLCOS) project, which is a Transversal Action under the European eLearning Programme, has produced a roadmap to provide educational decision makers with orientation and recommendations on how to foster the further development and use of OER. This article provides a brief overview of the context and focus of the OLCOS roadmap 2012, explains why it gives priority to open educational practices rather than resources, and presents some drivers/enablers and inhibitors of open educational practices and resources. Furthermore, it summarises some of the recommendations of the roadmap report. The article also mentions and provides links to forty selected projects and resources that illustrate

Hamlyn. (2008). Learning Futures: Next Practice in Learning and Teaching. The emerging issues can be grouped under the following broad headings: Teaching and Learning Strategies and Student Voice Innovations Seeking Permission Creativity and Accountability Separate Worlds of Learning Pedagogy and Language

Kamtsiou, V., Naeve, A., Kravcik, M., Burgos, D., Zimmermann, V., Klamma, R., et al. (2008). A Roadmap for Technology Enhanced Professional Learning: PROLEARN Deliverable D. The main content of this document is a summary of recent findings from a pan-European Roadmapping exercise lead by the PROLEARN NoE on the future of Technology-Enhanced Professional Learning (TEPL). The results are presented in terms of: a) visions describing the desired future state b) identified gaps between the current state of the art and the visions (Gap analysis) and c) actions recommended to fill the identified gaps. The Roadmapping process followed by the PROLEARN team aims to provide us with information on “where we want to go” (foresight/visions/desired future) and “where we are now” (current state), so that we will be in a position to determine “How we can bridge the gaps between the future and the present” (action plan).;jsessionid=BBF8BAFE8978E4E6F7855D0726444800?cmd=open&manifest=Prolearn-NCSR&

Laurillard, D., Alexopoulou, E., James, B., Bottino, R. M., Bouhineau, D., Chioccariello, A., et al. (2007). The Kaleidoscope scientific vision for research in technology enhanced learning: Kaleidoscope (This is the first paragraph of the introduction). Researchers do not normally trouble themselves with ‘vision statements’. A vision for a field of research is more likely to be an evanescent and emergent property of its intellectual clashes, than something that can be represented as a joint communiqué. There was some debate within the Kaleidoscope Network over the wisdom of developing an agreed statement on where we believe our research is heading. There is too wide a range of ambitions, too many uncertainties about the intellectual foundations of the field, too little agreement about the most fruitful pathways to pursue.

Lee, N. (2007). CHILDHOOD 2025 AND BEYOND. Section 1: Timing, childhood and technology: a survey of forces In this section I will describe contemporary UK childhood (0-18) as shaped in large part by the figure of the ‘pupil-child’. Contemporary childhood is the result of the more or less successful coordination of numerous preparation/performance sequences on scales ranging from the single day to the life-course. A single dominant timing has emerged as a key feature of hegemonic versions of childhood which places children within a bio-political national order. Within this temporal order, children are ‘human becomings’, sites of investment in the economic future. Dominant timing has long been maintained by out-manoeuvring a wide range of alternative timings. Some of these alternative timings are defined by children’s expressed preferences – attempts to define ‘homework time’ as ‘rest time’, ‘rest time’ as ‘entertainment time’ or ‘class time’ as ‘social time’. Others are defined by unwilled variations in states of consciousness and activation. Having contrasted dominant and alternative timings, I will then suggest that the increasing penetration of processing and communications technology into children’s lives is lending new substance to alternative timings. Childhood is increasingly shaped by temporal multiplicity. Section 2: Emergent issues In this section, the contrast between dominant timing and temporal multiplicity is used to generate three sets of emergent issues concerning children as learners, as market and social participants and as a bio-political resource. In generating these issues both problems and opportunities presented by temporal multiplicity have been considered. Section 3: Events and activities This section describes a programme of focussed discussions, consultation and reporting designed primarily to convert unknown unknowns into know unknowns.

McLoughlin, C., & Lee, M. (2007). Social software and participatory learning: Pedagogical choices with technology affordances in the Web 2.0 era. The two-way Web has arrived, accompanied by a raft of affordances that expand how we teach, communicate, learn and create knowledge. New trends are emerging in the way information is distributed and consumed. Emerging “Web 2.0” services such as blogs, wikis and social bookmarking applications, as well as social networking sites like MySpace, Friendster and Facebook, are seen as more social and personal, and based on “microcontent”, i.e., digital content in small fragments that may be combined and recombined by individuals to produce new patterns, images and interpretations. This paper investigates the affordances of Web 2.0 and social software and the choices and constraints they offer to tertiary teachers and learners. A discussion of emerging pedagogical models is presented to demonstrate that we now have access to an enabling suite of tools to support greater learner choice and self-direction.

Miller, R., Shapiro, H., & Hilding-Hamann, K. (2008). School's Over: Learning Spaces in Europe in 2020: An Imagining Exercise on the Future of Learning. JRC Scientific Report: This report provides a visionary scenario of a 21st Century Learning-intensive Society where Learning Spaces are the next school. It is an imaginary snapshot of learning in Europe in 2020 which has been developed on the basis of a rigorous foresight approach. It presents a discontinuous model of how people learn and how what they learn is used in everyday life. The vision provokes and challenges the assumptions that currently dominate, often implicitly, the choices being made today. It includes hypothetical policy options for the imagined Learning-intensive Society Learning Spaces. The visionary scenario and the policy options that are part of it are intended to provide food for thought on the possible future of learning in Europe in 2020.

Pachler, N., Mellar, H., Daly, C., Mor, Y., & Wiliam, D. (2009). Scoping a vision for formative e-assessment: a project report for JISC: JISC. Assessment is an integral part of teaching and learning. If the relationship between teaching and learning were causal, i.e. if students always mastered the intended learning outcomes of a particular sequence of instruction, assessment would be superfluous. Experience and research suggest this is not the case: what is learnt can often be quite different from what is taught. Formative assessment is motivated by a concern with the elicitation of relevant information about student understanding and/ or achievement, its interpretation and an exploration of how it can lead to actions that result in better learning. In the context of a policy drive towards technology-enhanced approaches to teaching and learning, the question of the role of digital technologies is key and it is the latter on which this project particularly focuses. The project and its deliverables have been informed by recent and relevant literature, in particular recent work by Black and Wiliam (e.g. forthcoming). In this work, they put forward a framework which suggests that assessment for learning – their term for formative assessment – can be conceptualised as consisting of a number of aspects and five key strategies. The key aspects revolve around where the learner is going, where the learner is right now and how she can get there and examines the role played by the teacher, peers and the learner.

Sandford, R., & Facer, K. (2008). Futures Review: Looking at previous global futures. This paper aims to provide a context for the early phases of the Beyond Current Horizons programme which is tasked with producing: a long-term and challenging vision for education in the context of socio-technological change to 2025 and beyond. The paper is intended to stimulate debate about the principles, methods and focus areas that should structure the programme going forward. Essentially, this paper is intended to help us ask: „what are the really big questions for education in the context of social and technological change?‟

Sheehan, M. (2008). Spreading the Word: Messaging and Communications in Higher Education: EDUCAUSE. This ECAR roadmap synthesizes the important issues and recommended actions drawn from the 2009 ECAR research study, Spreading the Word: Messaging and Communications in Higher Education Roadmap, by Mark C. Sheehan, with Judith A. Pirani. The study is a comprehensive analysis of how colleges and universities plan, organize, deploy, and support messaging and communication technologies. It provides insights into the level of confidence the institutions have in these technologies, how well the technologies perform, and how the importance and usage of these technologies might change in the foreseeable future. The study is informed by 351 responses to a quantitative survey of EDUCAUSE member institutions, along with 37 interviews with higher education leaders who are especially active in the fields of messaging and communications. Accompanying this research are three case studies that look at messaging and communication practices at the Louisiana State University and A&M College, the University of Louisville, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

White, S. (2008). Scanning the Horizon: Towards a Theory of Education 2.0. Retrieved. from is no doubt that Web 2 0 will be a precursor of Education 2 0 Students’ behaviours have changed because of the unprecedented growth in the use of computer-based technologies in everyday life In this paper I would like to argue that we need to look beyond that surface understanding Twentieth century debates on the about the future of computer assisted learning were accompanied by the health warning that we needed to put pedagogy before technology Today we still need to think about what we learn, how we learn and how we are motivated to learn We should beware of becoming obsessed with the leisure habits of young people We should instead look to see how those leisure habits can act as vehicles to develop skills, knowledge and understanding necessary for a success In today’s world information is our most valuable commodity whose half-life is rapidly decreasing We have the opportunity to develop self-sustaining educational approaches which prepare learners for a future where they may take on roles and careers which are not yet imagined or created.